The exposure to ambient temperatures is an important public health threat, which increases the risk of death, hospitalization, illness and occupational accidents, even in economically developed societies. Several population groups are more vulnerable to the health effects of temperatures, such as the elderly and people with pre-existent or chronic diseases. Temperature-related health effects can be largely avoided if informed decisions are made to protect vulnerable populations. In this sense, health early warning systems and prevention plans are useful tools to reduce the impact of temperatures on human health. However, the majority of existent preventive actions in Europe are mainly designed to consider only climate data or indices, and to include health information. The integration of health data with weather and climate forecasts can increase the effectiveness of public health adaptation strategies by specifically including the modifying effect of human vulnerability and societal adaptation, and in this way, contribute to a reduction of this major public health threat in Europe.